Cut the Skull Dull the Mind: Early Surgery for Mental Patients

Brain surgery goes back as far as Neolithic times. Famous archeological digs have discovered skulls that were trephined, a practice where a hole is bore into the skull during the stone age.
Brain surgery goes back as far as Neolithic times. Famous archeological digs have discovered skulls that were trephined, a practice where a hole is bore into the skull during the stone age. These skulls have been found all over the world, but most particularly in Europe (France), India, China, the Middle East, Africa,and South America.

There are many hypotheses for why trephanation was done. Since some skulls show evidence of healing it is believed the medical people of the times treated battle wounds this way in order to heal the patients.

Later, the process may have been used to cure epilepsy and other mental disorders. However, medical practice during the earlier times periods all the way into the modern era of the middles ages and the renaissance period was the was a combination of superstitions and folklore. A true grasp of mental health had was not yet understood.

Mental health issues were often associated with evil spirits and demonology. Brain surgery was no exception. Another hypothesis is that trephining was also practiced to rid the brain of evil spirits. The medical practitioners of the time may have trepanned to rid the evils spirits possessing the minds of depressed and schizophrenic individuals.

Though the practice of trephaning is still practiced for very specific medical needs( trephaning the finger and toenail to release excessive blood accumulation below the nail, or some eye surgery) it has fallen out of favor among medical and mental health professionals except in a few fringe groups largely following the work of Bart Hughes, a man who called himself a doctor but never finished medical school.

Resurgence of the practice of cutting into the skill to treat mental patients

Though the practicing of trepanning had fallen out favor, psychiatrists of earlier times were at a loss to find treatments that would help mentally ill patients. The historical treatment of mentally ill individuals is not a nice one. Throughout the centuries the mentally ill have been tortured, abused, neglected, ostracized by society, blamed for producing natural disasters, famines, floods, stealing babies, witchcraft, imprisoned, and killed.

It wasn't until the later half of the 20 century that human treatments for mental ill patients were devised and utilized. Nevertheless, physicians and psychiatrists were desperate to find treatments to control the rage and violent outbursts of the most serious cases.

Montreal Neurological Institute

www.mni.mcgill.ca

Sources:

http://www.ibiblio.org/pub/electronic-publications/stay-free/archives/21/lobotomy.html

http://www.toddlertime.com/advocacy/hospitals/Asylum/history-asylum.htm

http://scienceblogs.com/neurophilosophy/2007/07/inventing_the_lobotomy.php

http://www.freedommag.org/english/vol37I1/page08.htm

http://www.freedommag.org/english/vol37I1/page09.htm

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Which Color Personality Are You: Red, Blue, Green or Yellow?

Most companies use the four color personality test to determine how best to address each personality with the goal of creating a harmonious and productive environment. It is useful for an individual to be able to understand each color personality as well to better equipped in adapting to each personality type

No, I'm not asking about your favorite color. After you a reach a certain age, you probably start to realize that not all of us were created equal. We each have our own nuances and personalities which sometimes make it easier for us to get along with some and have a difficult time with others. Some personalities clash and some get along with perfect ease. Most companies use a color personality test in order to better understand these personality differences and how to make it work for everyone.

Understanding the different personalities is important not just for big companies but for us as individuals as this will make it easier for us to learn how to better deal with colleagues and clients. You might say this could even be useful in understanding your partner when it comes to personal relationships. Understanding gives you a better perspective of a person and how best to react when faced with a stressful situation.

Experts have determined that there are four basic personality types. The four basic colors are, yellow, red, blue and green, and it doesn't have anything to do with a person's favorite color. As an individual, learning our color personality is also important. First, because it helps us to better understand ourselves and why we react to certain situations a certain way. Second, when we understand who we are, it allows us to open ourselves to at least try to understand others as well.

Want to learn what type of personality you have? You may take this simple color personality test. Once you have finished the test you may go back to check out what your color personality means by checking out the rest of this article. If you find that 2 or more colors returned the same result, that is perfectly normal as no one person is just one color. All of us have some bits of each color personality, although some colors may be more predominant than the rest.

YELLOW

The yellow personality is generally regarded as the sunniest personality. Often you will find them the life of the party. They are most of the time the loudest and most vocal of the four types of color personality. Some would regard them as the happy-go-lucky type who seems unable to take anything seriously. The yellow personality treats life as if it's one big, continuous party. If faced with a stressful situation, the yellow person would seek out friends and drink it out. Most yellow personalities fear rejection most.

More interesting facts about the yellow personality include they can be very loyal and great team players, and are personable and friendly. They can be family oriented and animal lovers, plus environmentally conscious and love the outdoors. Yellow personalities do not like conflict and are more adept at being the peace maker. A yellow personality is creative, expressive, intuitive, and makes great volunteers. They dislike phony people.  

Yellow Personality Tendencies

  • Optimism
  • Enthusiasm
  • Makes good impressions
  • Verbally articulate
  • Likes to help others
  • Creates entertaining climate

Yellow Personality Ideal situation

  • Friendly warm environment
  • Freedom from control
  • Public recognition of ability
  • Opportunity to talk
  • Positive reinforcement
  • Enthusiastic response to ideas

Yellow Personality Weaknesses

  • Following through
  • Overestimating results
  • Misjudging capabilities
  • Talks too much
  • Acts impulsively
  • Jumps to conclusions
  • Over commits
  • Acts first, thinks second

Yellow Personality Needs others to provide

  • Follow through on details
  • Focus on tasks
  • Logical approach

Yellow Personality Personal growth area

  • Time awareness
  • Objectivity in decision making

RED

The red personality is generally considered the "dominating personality". These are the types of person who demands that things be done their way and right now. They sometimes have low tolerance for undisciplined and devil-may-care attitude which oftentimes put them at odds with the yellow personality. If faced with a stressful situation the red personality would generally seek out strenuous activities like running or boxing to vent out his or her frustrations. Most reds fear failure.

More interesting fact about the red personality includes their desire to win, competitive, and a confident personality. Even though the red personality is competitive, they can also be insecure which gives a need for approval from others and drives their need to win. They can be selfish, and not a good team player, because they would rather be in the spotlight which makes them sometimes selfish.

 Red personality Tendencies

  • Getting immediate results
  • Making quick decisions
  • Persistence
  • Solving problems
  • Taking charge
  • Looking self reliant
  • Accepting challenges

Red Personality Ideal situation

  • New varied activities
  • Opportunity to really get things done
  • Continual challenges, multi-tasker
  • Difficult assignments
  • Freedom to act from their instinct
  • Control over the situations
  • Direct answers from others, no innuendoes

Red Personality Weaknesses

  • Insensitivity towards others
  • Impatient
  • Overlook risks
  • Inflexibility, demanding of others
  • Talks too much
  • Inattentive to details at times
  • Resenting of restrictions

Red Personality Needs others to provide

  • Attention to routine tasks
  • Caution
  • Focus on details and facts

Red Personality Personal growth area

  • Greater patience
  • Sensitivity to others' needs
  • Flexibility

GREEN

The green personality is generally referred to as the calm personality. They don't easily get frazzled and are the epitome of calmness even in most stressful situations. To them also falls the role of mediator when faced with sticky situations. When stressed, the green's approach is to sleep it off. The green personality tries his/her best to maintain harmony in all types of situation. Because of the green's inability to say no, people oftentimes take advantage of them.

The green personality also has the following traits. They are known to be very calculating and logical in their thinking which also means they do not make snap decisions and think everything through because of their love of analyzing every question and every situation. They are more scientific in their thinking, preferring facts over intuition of faith based answers. This can make the green personality rather skeptical of people and those with ulterior motives. They need a precise plan to follow, and they are not spontaneous, and do not like surprises. They can also be perfectionist and sometimes end up being emotionally detached.

Green Personality Tendencies

  • Supportive
  • Agreeable
  • Loyal
  • Self control
  • Consistent
  • Good listener
  • Opportunity to develop personal relationships

Green Personality Ideal situation

  • Sincere appreciation by others
  • Minimal conflict between people
  • Security
  • Acknowledgement of work by others
  • Limited territory
  • Traditional procedures
  • Opportunity to develop personal relationships

Green Personality Weaknesses

  • Resist change
  • Trouble making deadlines
  • Overly lenient with people
  • Procrastinates
  • Indecisive
  • Holds grudges
  • Overly possessive
  • Lacks initiative

Green Personality Needs others to provide

  • Push to try new challenges
  • Help in solving difficult problems
  • Initiative and accepting change

Green Personality Personal growth area

  • Facing confrontation and dealing with it
  • Moving at a faster pace and initiating

BLUE

The blue personality type is seen as the perfectionists. They are the ones who would generally examine the smallest details of every situation and fret about each one of them. The blue personality oftentimes appears unemotional and doesn't want to be touched. The greatest fear of a blue person is to be criticized.

Interestingly, other studies show that the blue personalities can be aloof, forgetful and fun loving. They live for the moment and are the exact opposite of the green personality.

Blue PersonalityTendencies

  • Orderliness
  • Conscientious
  • Disciplined
  • Precise
  • Thorough
  • Diplomatic with people
  • Analytical

Blue Personality Ideal situation

  • Being able to concentrate on detail
  • Opportunities to critique
  • Stable surroundings and procedures
  • Exact job description, expectations
  • Opportunities for "careful" planning
  • Sufficient time to do things right
  • Opportunities for reassurance from authority

Blue Personality Weaknesses

  • Indecisive (looking at all data)
  • Get bogged down in details
  • Rigid on the how-to's
  • Avoids controversy
  • Low self esteem
  • Hesitant to try new things
  • Sensitive to criticism
  • Can be pessimistic

Blue Personality Needs others to provide

  • Quick decision making
  • Optimism
  • Help in persuading others

Blue Personality Personal growth area

  • Be more open with their feelings
  • Be more optimistic

Color Personality Conclusion

This is not an exact science and many people can be different than what their color personality describes. Though some people are really described well with their color personalities, other people do not resemble their color personalities. Check out the following sources for more information, because this type of personality test can be very interesting. If you find you are someone that identifies with a certain color, these tests can be very helpful.

Sources:

http://forum.blueharvest.net/index.php?showtopic=5883

http://www.heidimorton.net/personality-types/

Drowning in Dreams: Meanings and Interpretations

Drowning in your dreams can represent many things that the subconscious is trying to relay to the dreamer. Listed below are common interpretations to what it means to dream of drowning from discovering underlying emotions of fear, being overwhelmed, trapped or the need to express one's self more clearly. Discover new and simple ways to understand what your dreams of drowning are trying to tell you.

Drowning in your dreams can represent many things that the subconscious is trying to relay to the dreamer. Listed below are common interpretations to what it means to dream of drowning.

In the Ocean

Drowning in the ocean is a common theme but there are variations to it that can reveal a lot to the dreamer about his or her daily life.

To drown while swimming out into the ocean can represent that the person usually has a good grasp on their emotions, and swims along with the ebb and flow of life. However, once out the ocean, if the dreamer tires and goes under, where he is no longer able to stay above water, this is an indication that outer influences have just become too burdensome and the person is emotionally succumbing to the pressures and stresses. The buoyancy and balance has become off center and it means it's time to lighten the load in order to float the surface again. So, if this is a relationship that has gone awry, or a job that has become too stressful, it's time to rethink the situation and let go of what's pulling him down.

If the dreamer drowns in the ocean by suddenly being swept under a wave or tide they cannot fight against, this would indicate that the dreamer has been hit by a sudden situation in life that is difficult to process or emotionally handle. If the wave throws the dreamer into the rocks or runs them aground, this can represent deliberate intent from others to "bash" him with hurtful words or actions and they are left in an emotional undertow by it. In this situation, the dreamer is either receiving a warning to what's coming, or, he may have just experienced this in his life and it's his subconscious way of processing what has happened.

If the dreamer dreams he or she is left behind either by a sinking vessel or by someone else and ends up drowning, this can be an indication that the dreamer has a root fear of being abandoned and suffers loss or grief from it. In this case, it's healthy for the dreamer to express his concerns to those he is in fear of being abandoned by, or feels abandoned by, so that it can be resolved by receiving clarity and truthful intention. If this is a general fear that the dreamer has had for a long period of time, it can be helpful for the dreamer to experience a regression either through meditation or hypnotherapy so that he can learn of and remember the impacting experience he went through that caused that. Experiencing divorce, death or sudden loss at a young age can create the subconscious manifestation of this fear that outwardly blankets most relationships in which the dreamer continually feels at risk of abandonment and loss. This can result in clingy behavior, jealousy or feeling the need to hang on extra tight to others so that they are not left alone or abandoned.  

Ocean Waves / Pixabay

In a Pool

To drown while in a pool is a very different scenario than mentioned above. A pool is manmade. It is not a natural body of water. It is artificially kept blue, clear and clean within a constructed foundation that has been intentionally manufactured.  So the question for the dreamer, is, what in his life has become manufactured that looks great on the outside, has all the working parts, but is not a natural representation? This could be a career, a spouse, a lifestyle etc.

To dream of drowning in a pool while alone can indicate that the life the person has built for themselves is no longer sustainable. It is time to downsize and liquidate what no longer serves his or her happiness. This is something the dreamer must choose for themselves, and take responsibility for. Change is a good thing and when one thing dies, another is born.

To dream of drowning in a pool while there are many other people present, this can also mean the same thing as above, but in this scenario, the dreamer may be going through this in a public way. Other people are seeing this and watching what is happening. Now whether or not they are trying to assist the person or just let them drown can be very telling as well.  This will indicate whether or not other people are willing to come to the persons rescue. If there are other people present and they too are drowning in the pool, this can represent a group situation such as a whole family or a company, or even a community that is in a particular situation that needs to be changed. Water of course represents emotion so there is an emotional sadness or loss with this type of dream. However, with all loss, as in all deaths, birth and renewal are just as much a part of the experience.

In a Natural Disaster or Storm

Many people dream of drowning in a flood, tsunami or storm in which water rises fast and they become swept up or under the force of the rushing water or waves.

In this type of dream, we are going to touch on a couple of things; one being precognition and memories from past life experiences. Some people who have actually drowned in past lives will experience it in the dream state as a way for the subconscious to bring it to the surface so that it can be healed and resolved. Unresolved fears and traumas stay with us until we are able to heal them and move forward. So, the dream state is one way in which these experiences try to surface.

In another form, these dreams can be precognitive and the dreamer may be tapping in to a global impact such as a natural disaster that claims the lives of others or affects people in the world in a large way.

In the case where either of these scenarios is not the root cause to the dream, it can traditionally mean how we handle an emotional impact that is a natural part of life and it can be a heads up that something emotionally impacting is about to hit by surprise. This can be a financial loss, emotional loss or even death of a loved one. This can also represent to the dreamer how he is moving through an emotional impact that he has gone through recently, especially if he has not been able to properly cope with life's stresses.

Being that it is a natural disaster or storm of nature, this reminds the dreamer that many things that are difficult emotionally are a natural part of life and how we handle the situation is up to us. Proper coping skills and stress management skills are vital to healing from grief and loss.

Circumstances

As with all dream interpretations, outer lying circumstances can give us many clues to the intricacies and details surrounding the root message. For example, if the person who drowns in the dream is heavily intoxicated, it can represent that they have been in denial or using unhealthy methods to cope with emotional stresses and loss. Or let's say a person is driving a bus or car and it veers off the road, plunging into a lake or river, and the dreamer drowns, this can be a warning to slow down in life, and that they are taking too big of risks that can compromise their health or well being.  Another example would be being trapped or having one's hands tied and movement is compromised which causes the dreamer to not be able to fight for his breath or life. This can indicate that outer influences have forced the dreamer into circumstances that has made him feel victimized or at risk of failure, even if it's failure of a relationship or being able to stay afloat financially.  This can also represent that the dreamer is feeling suffocated and unable to have the proper "breathing room" in a relationship or other position that is having a negative impact on him.

This is just a reminder to the dreamer to take charge and take hold of his present situation and alter the circumstances so that he no longer has to feel victimized or suffocated by things that appear outside of his control.

So there are many circumstances that can change the nature of the message and help us further understand what it means.

As with all dreams, they are messages and the further we are able to interpret and understand our dreams, the better we are able to understand the ebb and flow of life which can give us great tools for healing, growth, and forgiveness.

Drowning in Your Dreams Conclusion

As you can see, there are several types of drowning dreams and each dream can have a different meaning, depending on each person’s circumstances. Dreams can tell us all a lot about our daily life fears and concerns. Learning how to interpret dreams can help us understand our deeper fears and possibly learn to handle our problems.  

Phone Calls in Dreams - Interpretations and Meanings

Learn about the interpretations and meanings of phone calls in dreams.

Communication comes in many forms whether it's a verbal conversation, telepathic thought "sharing" or transference, and even through physical gestures such as hand signals or facial expressions. Noted, many subtleties pertain to the forms of communication and dreams are very much a part of the equation.

With phone calls, the big picture reveals there is a message for the dreamer to be revealed.

Receiving a Phone Call

To receive a phone call in a dream can mean many things, directly and indirectly and can be taken as a sign or message about something the dreamer is currently experiencing in their life. However, on a deeper level, when the dreamer receives a phone call, it may also be a direct form of communication from other realms or even people who are no longer in direct contact with them on a regular basis.

Often, when there are lingering emotional or mental attachments to another person, living or deceased, it is not uncommon to dream of them phoning us to let us know they are okay. Or in other circumstances, they have something urgent that needs to be shared and that urgency is made manifest in the dream state.

Let's say a dreamer is at home and answers the phone in their dream but there is nobody on the other line. This presents a mystery. One scenario is that the person who is intending to reach out feels unable or is unable. Perhaps the caller is an ex and wants to reach out in real life, but does not. Because the intention and desire is there, it creates a string of attachment through projection and subconsciously in the dream state, the dreamer receives that intention. Because the dreamer is at home, this shows that the caller is personally connected, as houses and homes represent something of a firsthand personal nature. The caller is known to the dreamer, but the identity remains a mystery.

Now let's say that the dreamer receives a phone call at a pay phone while out in public. This reveals that the caller is making public whatever message he or she wants to share. If the caller happens to be someone from the dreamers past whom they had a falling out with, then I would interpret this as rumors being spread publicly. Or, let's say this is a friend or family member who is connected to the dreamer in a positive way but they have had little to no interaction with the dreamer in real life; this would tell me that the caller wants to communicate and connect, that there are positive memories and reasons to connect and being that it's received in a public place tells me the dreamer can locate or find communication with the caller through a public forum such as a social network. This would tell me that a reunion is coming.

Now let's say the dreamer receives a call on their cell phone but they cannot take it at that time, this would tell me that the caller knows the dreamer but the dreamer is ignoring the caller in real life. Perhaps this is not intentional, but the energy of not being able to connect is present. If the dreamer wants to take the call but something else gets in the way such as a low battery, static or even weather while driving etc, this would tell me that the dreamer in real life is yearning for a stronger connection with the caller but finds themselves unable to because of outer influences. This can be seen in situations with friendships that are fading away or even people who want to take their friendship to the next level but are hindered due to outer influences such as distance of location or even bad reviews given by family and friends.

In other dreams, sometimes the dreamer is actually being phoned by an archetypal being such as an angel, spirit guide or even God presence. With this scenario, I would interpret this as an answer to a prayer, an intention to connect stronger to the divine or being given a strong message of faith, protection and hope from the source of creation.

With some dreams in which the caller is aggressive or presents an element of danger to the dreamer, this could be interpreted as the dreamer feeling threatened in real life, or pursued by something or someone who is a threat. So the message would be to stay ever watchful for whatever surprises are lurking around the corner.

Pixabay

Making a Phone Call

If the dreamer is the actual caller in the dream, this can mean many things. Similar to the interpretations offered above, the roles in this situation are simply reversed, although there can be much more to be understood from this end of it. As the caller, the dreamer reveals he or she is in control of the timing of the message and whatever situation he or she finds themselves in.

For example, some dreamers call out for help to either a friend or family member if they are in trouble. Or, they call out to an authority figure that could answer to their emergency such as a Police Officer or Ambulance Driver. In this situation, I would be curious of what type of emergency the dreamer is experiencing in real life. Many times through post traumatic stress, dreamers will experience this type of phone call, to show their sense of panic and urgency, and their cry for help. This can be stronger in cases where the dreamer is very quiet in real life about their sense of loss, trauma or feeling controlled by a negative situation without a way to resolve it.

In dreams where the caller is reaching out to a loved one whom they have a great relationship with, I would see this as a blessing that is soon to come. A message is about to be delivered that is of a happy nature that can enhance the intimacy and connection between partners.

In dreams where the caller is shouting, yelling or causing arguments on the phone, I would see this as an emotional release dream that reveals they need to resolve whatever conflict they are experiencing with that caller in real life.

Color and Condition of Phone

As in every dream, color represents many things so depending on what type of phone the dreamer is holding on to, it can reveal an even stronger energy which reveals a deeper message.

  •  White Phone- White can mean a couple things. White phones represent simplicity, a simple message that doesn't need deeper interpretation, but it can also represent a lack of emotion. It's just white, like a blank slate.
  • Silver Phone- Silver can represent a person on the go and yet it can even represent timing, schedules and appointments. A phone call with a silver phone can mean either the dreamer or caller is trying to do too much in a short period of time and is mismanaging their schedule.
  • Black Phone- A Black phone represents someone whose getting right down to business and who wants things cut and dry, to tell it like it is. It can also represent discretion. Messages are direct but are also discreet. I would take note of the importance of the call and to recognize it is meant to be kept to themselves.
  • Pink Phone- Pink phones often represent teenage or young girls and women. It can also represent a message of love.
  • Blue Phone- Blue phones represent men or masculine energy. Light blue would represent a young male, even boy, and the darker the shade, the older or more mature the man. It can also represent peaceful and calming energy.
  • Red Phone- Red phones can mean a couple things. Emergencies come to mind first. I think of the private emergency line for the President. It also represents passion and sometimes aggression.

Pixabay

If a phone is glittered up with bling or accessories, I would see the nature of the people in the dream or message being one of clutter and disorganization. It also represents someone or something that needs to be recognized as important which is of a personal nature. I think of personalization, feeling special and important but it also reveals that the person wants recognition for it too.

If a phone is old and in disarray in any form, I would interpret this as neglect whether it represents it physically, emotionally, spiritually or mentally. The tone of the call should reveal which form of neglect it is.

If a phone is sleek, new and fully charged, I would see it as the person being completely ready to take on anything, and that they take care of themselves and are healthy.

As always, with every dream, it's important to write down what you dream so that you train your subconscious to pay closer attention to these important details.

Other dream interpretation articles I've written about on Factoidz which can be accessed through my profile are:

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