Psychology: Origin, History, Different Branches

Learn about the origins of psychology and how it began and how this study of psychology has progressed.

Psychology is the study of human behaviour. It covers everything that a person thinks or feels. Since it is all-encompassing, you will find psychologists in every field of study under the sun.  The history of psychology originated in the antiquities. Yet, it only became a recognized field on its own in the mid-1800's and for this reason, it is known as a fairly new discipline of study. The origins of psychology germinated in the fields of medicine and philosophy. We can thank the ancient Greeks for this.

From the field of science, Hippocrates, known as the father of medicine, was one of the greatest influences on modern-day psychology.  Similarly, Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle, the great ancient Greeks philosophers, were among the greatest influences on modern-day psychology from the philosophical perspective.  As a result of the tremendous influence of both these fields on psychology, there once was an ongoing debate as to whether psychology is a science or an art.

Basically, I believe that psychology is a mixture of both science and philosophy. I believe that one discipline without the other would not do justice to the field of psychology at all.

Psychology is not a hard science like chemistry or physics. It is known as a soft science because it does not postulate scientific laws governing nature.  Human nature is so complex; people don't always react in the same way, thus making it extremely difficult to establish "laws".  For a science to be called a pure science or "hard" science, you must have laws that you can prove over and over again. For example, gravity is a law of nature. If you let go of a pencil in midair it will always fall--according to a law of physics.

Conversely, to use depression as an example from the realm of psychology, many people may have symptoms of depression but these people will not experience it in quite the same way. It is for this reason that the hard-nosed scientists laugh at psychology.  In defense of my field, psychology does use the scientific method.

Psychologists test their theories using scientific methods of research. They will create experiments and measure the results. For example, if a psychologist deems that a person has depression, it is not because he/she felt like it, pulled it of his/her bag as a possible diagnosis or thought it sounded good. The diagnosis is based on scientific study and years of research in the field.

However, since humans are different from the elements, you cannot treat them as such. Just as I said before, a pencil will always fall if dropped in midair. However, a person has a thinking process that affects every decision that he or she makes in life, and these mental processes will affect the outcome of depression and affect their mood. Because of the additional influences of human thinking in reaction to various physical symptoms such as depression, the truisms found in philosophy must factor into the psychological evaluation as well.

The field of psychology became a recognized discipline in Europe in the mid-1800s. The first psychologists were German. They scientifically studied the physical reactions of the body when experiencing pain and formulated theories about reaching pain thresholds, etc. They did this by scientific means. They chose to study physical changes in the body by measuring sweat, heart rhythms, etc. They attempted to establish scientific data to explain and back up the body's reaction to pain.

They also studied how people learn with regards to their thinking processes, again by using the scientific method and measuring the subjects' responses in memory tests.  Later, people like Dr. Sigmund Freud, who was a medical doctor, proposed theories about human nature with regard to how humans think and feel which he combined that with the scientific (medical) knowledge of the day.

As a result, the division in psychology became apparent way back then. You had the scientists (the learning people), who were strictly concerned with physical aspects; and the clinicians, such as Freud, who studied the philosophical aspect and combined it with scientific study.

Today in universities you can choose to go into scientific psychology, which is pure research work, or clinical psychology where you will have patients and treat their various concerns. Since I love people and understanding how we tick, I decided to go into clinical psychology.

In our university, the psychology students were very competitive and there was a rivalry going on between the students who elected research (scientific) and the students such as myself who preferred the clinical aspect of psychology.  I nicknamed the scientific psychology students and their professors the "rat people."

These "rat people" are the people who experiment with rats and are responsible for helping to find cures for cancer, AIDS, etc. They work in conjunction with the medical field; chemistry, biology, etc., to finds cures for human ailments, including drug addiction and alcoholism. You name it and there will be research about it. These psychologists and students of psychology almost never see people. They don't have clients, they conduct experiments in the laboratory and they work with animals, studying their behavior to various stimuli. In using animals as test subjects they create models that can be applied to human nature. They not only help find cures for human diseases that way, they formulate theories about how humans learn by reacting to their environment and they aid in the research of veterinary sciences.

Incidentally, the research done by the "rat people" brings in big government research grants for American and Canadian universities; they are the big moneymakers. American and Canadian universities are world leaders in the area of scientific psychology research. Our governments pour millions of dollars into this type of research.

Other psychologists in the scientific stream research the behaviour of people rather than animals. For example, they may study the effects of the element of surprise introduced into a group setting, or test babies (developmental psychology) to see if they are responding to different stimuli the way they should at each stage of development. These psychologists, who are scientists, are not necessarily oriented toward individual clients. Their focus is to study groups and formulate theories about what is normal behaviour for that group.

Earlier, we talked about the division between science and philosophy that launched the great debate on whether or not psychology is a science or an art. The debate stemmed from the fact that psychology borrows from the sciences as well as from the great philosophical minds of all time.

We have talked about the scientific contributions to psychology and now we will turn our focus to clinicians, the people who deal with clients and listen to their emotional and cognitive needs. Clinical psychology has its roots in philosophy rather than medicine. Clinical psychologists are primarily interested in the client. They take the theories that the research psychologists formulate and apply them on an individual level (Applied Psychology).

As I have said before, if a psychologist diagnoses someone with depression, he/she just did not pull the diagnosis out of a hat. The counselor or psychologist uses scientific research as a basis for the diagnosis, but then takes the theories one step further. The counselor uses his/her knowledge of research to help the client ameliorate his/her situation.


Using the depression example, the clinician would know from the research that clinically depressed people (the most severe depression cases) don't really want to do anything; they are totally unmotivated, apathetic, and lethargic. Therefore, getting them to start doing things helps alleviate the depression can be challenging. Knowing this, a clinician will sit down with the client and talk about different things that the client would like to do as part of therapy. For one client it might be swimming, for another it might be using the Internet, etc.

In summary, there are two main divisions of psychology: scientific and clinical. Under each division, there are hundreds of fields of studies. The particular division of psychology that I studied at the Masters' level was clinical; the sub-division was counseling psychology.

For the most part, the clinical psychologist deals with severe mental disorders such as schizophrenia, major depression, Dissociative Identity Disorder--basically the same clientele as for psychiatrists.

Now, by introducing the subject of psychiatrists, it immediately begs the question, what is the difference between the psychologists and psychiatrists. Simply stated, a psychiatrist is a medical doctor who has taken special training in the workings of the mind and he/she understands that human mental disorders originate from a biological malfunction. Furthermore, he/she is also authorized to prescribe drugs to correct or ameliorate these disorders.  On the other hand, the clinical psychologist is not a medical doctor. He/she has studied the workings of the mind but only has a psychology degree, not a medical degree. Without a medical degree, the psychologist is not authorized to prescribe drugs.

The counselor or counseling psychologist's focus is not on abnormal human behaviour as in the heavy-duty mental disorders, but their focus is concerned with normal behaviour. Therefore, counselors and counseling psychologists work with people who have everyday issues or concerns.

The first counselors were guidance counselors in schools and universities who dealt with issues that students face. The discipline has now extended to clinical psychology.  You will find counselors in schools, clinics, community centers, hospitals, businesses-just about anywhere. Counselors deal with a wide variety of issues, such as problems in school, marital and family relationships, grief counseling, career counseling, depression, self-esteem issues; the list goes on and on.

I completed my internship in a psychiatric hospital where I counseled clients who had symptoms of schizophrenia. I have a Master's in Counseling Psychology, so I am a counselor and not a counseling psychologist. To earn the title psychologist you must have a PhD. (I could obtain a PhD under what is known as the grandfather clause by taking an extra year of study. Before NAFTA I would have been a psychologist already.)

Each of these professionals provides therapy; for the psychiatrist, therapy would include drug therapy. However, for psychologists and counselors alike, therapy is basically applying the scientific theories of psychology to everyday life and coming up with a plan to help your client, such as the example previously given for depression.

To date, there are over 350 different therapies out there. Of course, no one individual therapist was ever trained in all of them. But they are out there--good, bad or otherwise.  Some of these therapies work better than others, making it difficult for a person seeking help to really know who to go to. When you have cancer you go to a cancer specialist, but when you need to see a psychologist or counselor it is not easy to find the right one.

Consequently, it is required by law that when seeking a psychologist or counselor, the professional must tell you his/her particular brand of psychology and what he/she plans to accomplish with you through the use of it. At that point, a prospective client can decide if this is the type of therapy that he/she feels will help; or the client can begin therapy and choose afterwards based on results.


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Being Shot in a Dream: Methods, Meanings and Interpretations

Learn the different interpretations and scenarios of what it means to be shot or be a shooter in a dream.

What Dreams Can Mean

Being shot in a dream can provoke anger, fear and a lot of confusion but there are practical ways to understanding and interpreting exactly what it means, especially if these types of scenarios are recurring.

As the dreamer, we often feel victimized, or hurt by the hands of another. Sometimes in these dreams we actually experience death but most often, it is the impact that is strongest component.

How we are shot, by what, and by who can give us different meanings.


Being shot with an arrow or multiple arrows often leads us to question challenges, conflicts and difficulties with matters of the heart. Many traditional images portray a heart with an arrow drawn through it, or even picture the romantic notion of Robin Hood shooting an arrow into a bulls-eye for his honor and to win the love of his Maid Marion. However, some dreams portray very different scenarios such as those with a historical context of axes, arrows, and stones.

If someone is shot with a single arrow and can see the assailant, the interpretation would lead to a competition or rivalry, including undertones of jealousy when it comes to a relationship or partner. Who is it that is trying to attach to their already taken loved one? Or how about having to fight for the attention of another who has not yet become a partner to them? What is it about love that has such an impact that it could spark rivalry?

If the dreamer is shot with multiple arrows, this would indicate feeling bombarded by matters of the heart. This could be jealousy but often, this would indicate harsh words or judgments by friends and family members that pertain to a chosen mate. For example, a daughter-in-law that his family dislikes and makes verbal jabs against her to him. In a sense, this is a battle of words but can be overwhelming and cause emotional "bleeding" or even death to the relationship.

If the dreamer is the one who is shooting arrows, he or she needs to ask themselves who it is they are trying to compete with. Where is there a need for such a battle? What emotions are they suppressing that could be "shot" out one day when they lose their temper? What do they have to fight so hard for when it comes to love or companionship?


Guns have a similar context in the fact there is some form of conflict but guns represent something different. Instead of matters of the heart, guns represent dominance or a fight for survival and usually this pertains to lifestyle, social status or even career. Guns represent quick-to-action responses and defenses and depending on the type of gun or how many gunmen there are, the dreamer can determine the seriousness of the fight.

If the dream takes on an urban appeal with gang members or a type of gang mentality with assailants shooting to kill the dreamer, the tone of the dream comes across as the dreamer feeling overwhelmed by the majority and gives in to the imaginings of his or her biggest fears. The dreamer in life is being overwhelmed, overworked and feels weaker against the majority. Urban areas represent something manmade rather than natural so this can be more of a fight for survival of a financial status, social status or position of some kind that competes with the fellow man.

In a natural setting such as field, mountain, or park area, the dreamer is stepping into an environment that is cognitively very natural and familiar. For example, they are on familiar territory, even though in the dream they may be navigating through scenes they don't recognize. Nature and the outdoors reveal who the dreamer is in a natural setting. So if the dreamer is the one being shot but cannot see the gunman, this shows that it is natural for them to feel stricken, shot, or hurt by others words.

It is natural for them to be on the defense, watching every move that others make and keeping others at arm's length. If the dreamer is the shooter and cannot see the target, it shows a similar defensiveness but they feel they are the one in control of the situation.

If the dreamer is a shooter but is hunting an animal in a dream, this shows a need to survive, and the instinct to do whatever it takes to survive. If the dreamer is watching an animal get shot, it shows in real life they are surrounded by others who are willing to do whatever it takes to survive. Depending on the reaction the dreamer has to the animal being shot, he or she will know whether or not this is an ally or adversary.


Tanks or Bombs

This would represent a conflict with political power, political or governmental organizations or policies. If the dreamer is the victim, then it would be interpreted that the dreamer feels victimized by these organizations and it's come down to a fight for survival. Or, if the dreamer is riding in a tank or operating a bombing system on a large scale, it would be interpreted that the dreamer in real life is willing to wage war against a nation, government or policy for a moral victory, or to stand up for a noble cause.

In a Car

If the dreamer is in a car and is being shot at, then it shows they are moving through a situation that is a really close call with someone or something they are in a conflict with. Depending on if they get away determines the outcome or projected outcome in real life. It's a narrow escape. Or, if the person is in a parked car and is shooting at a target who cannot see them, this shows in real life they want to confront someone or something but haven't done so yet. This is more of an emotional release dream to release frustration over a situation they are conflicted by.

In a War

Sometimes, on occasion, people will dream of being shot in a war. Depending on the nature of the dream, this can potentially be a deep soul recall memory of a past life experience. Sometimes however, this can represent an individual feeling at war with an agency, an ideal, a country, a policy and so on. It represents something much bigger than they are, but they are not alone in the fight.


For those who dream of being shot and dying from it often experience a conclusion, possibly finality to whatever conflict they have been at war with. If the dreamer is the shooter and the target is killed by their shot, it shows they are the ones who are ending whatever conflict has been experienced.

Dream Interpretations Conclusion

As you can see, there are many way to interpret a dream. Sometimes we can wake up in a cold sweat, shaking, and scared because of a dream we had. Other times we wake up feeling great because of the dreams we had. Interpreting dreams is of course not an exact science, but there is plenty of evidence that suggests that dreams are all about issues that worry us in life. Our subconscious and dreams can tell us a great deal about what concerns all of us in life.

Other dream interpretation articles I've written about on Knoji which can be accessed through my profile are:

Phone Calls in Dreams - Interpretations and Meanings

Learn about the interpretations and meanings of phone calls in dreams.

Communication comes in many forms whether it's a verbal conversation, telepathic thought "sharing" or transference, and even through physical gestures such as hand signals or facial expressions. Noted, many subtleties pertain to the forms of communication and dreams are very much a part of the equation.

With phone calls, the big picture reveals there is a message for the dreamer to be revealed.

Receiving a Phone Call

To receive a phone call in a dream can mean many things, directly and indirectly and can be taken as a sign or message about something the dreamer is currently experiencing in their life. However, on a deeper level, when the dreamer receives a phone call, it may also be a direct form of communication from other realms or even people who are no longer in direct contact with them on a regular basis.

Often, when there are lingering emotional or mental attachments to another person, living or deceased, it is not uncommon to dream of them phoning us to let us know they are okay. Or in other circumstances, they have something urgent that needs to be shared and that urgency is made manifest in the dream state.

Let's say a dreamer is at home and answers the phone in their dream but there is nobody on the other line. This presents a mystery. One scenario is that the person who is intending to reach out feels unable or is unable. Perhaps the caller is an ex and wants to reach out in real life, but does not. Because the intention and desire is there, it creates a string of attachment through projection and subconsciously in the dream state, the dreamer receives that intention. Because the dreamer is at home, this shows that the caller is personally connected, as houses and homes represent something of a firsthand personal nature. The caller is known to the dreamer, but the identity remains a mystery.

Now let's say that the dreamer receives a phone call at a pay phone while out in public. This reveals that the caller is making public whatever message he or she wants to share. If the caller happens to be someone from the dreamers past whom they had a falling out with, then I would interpret this as rumors being spread publicly. Or, let's say this is a friend or family member who is connected to the dreamer in a positive way but they have had little to no interaction with the dreamer in real life; this would tell me that the caller wants to communicate and connect, that there are positive memories and reasons to connect and being that it's received in a public place tells me the dreamer can locate or find communication with the caller through a public forum such as a social network. This would tell me that a reunion is coming.

Now let's say the dreamer receives a call on their cell phone but they cannot take it at that time, this would tell me that the caller knows the dreamer but the dreamer is ignoring the caller in real life. Perhaps this is not intentional, but the energy of not being able to connect is present. If the dreamer wants to take the call but something else gets in the way such as a low battery, static or even weather while driving etc, this would tell me that the dreamer in real life is yearning for a stronger connection with the caller but finds themselves unable to because of outer influences. This can be seen in situations with friendships that are fading away or even people who want to take their friendship to the next level but are hindered due to outer influences such as distance of location or even bad reviews given by family and friends.

In other dreams, sometimes the dreamer is actually being phoned by an archetypal being such as an angel, spirit guide or even God presence. With this scenario, I would interpret this as an answer to a prayer, an intention to connect stronger to the divine or being given a strong message of faith, protection and hope from the source of creation.

With some dreams in which the caller is aggressive or presents an element of danger to the dreamer, this could be interpreted as the dreamer feeling threatened in real life, or pursued by something or someone who is a threat. So the message would be to stay ever watchful for whatever surprises are lurking around the corner.


Making a Phone Call

If the dreamer is the actual caller in the dream, this can mean many things. Similar to the interpretations offered above, the roles in this situation are simply reversed, although there can be much more to be understood from this end of it. As the caller, the dreamer reveals he or she is in control of the timing of the message and whatever situation he or she finds themselves in.

For example, some dreamers call out for help to either a friend or family member if they are in trouble. Or, they call out to an authority figure that could answer to their emergency such as a Police Officer or Ambulance Driver. In this situation, I would be curious of what type of emergency the dreamer is experiencing in real life. Many times through post traumatic stress, dreamers will experience this type of phone call, to show their sense of panic and urgency, and their cry for help. This can be stronger in cases where the dreamer is very quiet in real life about their sense of loss, trauma or feeling controlled by a negative situation without a way to resolve it.

In dreams where the caller is reaching out to a loved one whom they have a great relationship with, I would see this as a blessing that is soon to come. A message is about to be delivered that is of a happy nature that can enhance the intimacy and connection between partners.

In dreams where the caller is shouting, yelling or causing arguments on the phone, I would see this as an emotional release dream that reveals they need to resolve whatever conflict they are experiencing with that caller in real life.

Color and Condition of Phone

As in every dream, color represents many things so depending on what type of phone the dreamer is holding on to, it can reveal an even stronger energy which reveals a deeper message.

  •  White Phone- White can mean a couple things. White phones represent simplicity, a simple message that doesn't need deeper interpretation, but it can also represent a lack of emotion. It's just white, like a blank slate.
  • Silver Phone- Silver can represent a person on the go and yet it can even represent timing, schedules and appointments. A phone call with a silver phone can mean either the dreamer or caller is trying to do too much in a short period of time and is mismanaging their schedule.
  • Black Phone- A Black phone represents someone whose getting right down to business and who wants things cut and dry, to tell it like it is. It can also represent discretion. Messages are direct but are also discreet. I would take note of the importance of the call and to recognize it is meant to be kept to themselves.
  • Pink Phone- Pink phones often represent teenage or young girls and women. It can also represent a message of love.
  • Blue Phone- Blue phones represent men or masculine energy. Light blue would represent a young male, even boy, and the darker the shade, the older or more mature the man. It can also represent peaceful and calming energy.
  • Red Phone- Red phones can mean a couple things. Emergencies come to mind first. I think of the private emergency line for the President. It also represents passion and sometimes aggression.


If a phone is glittered up with bling or accessories, I would see the nature of the people in the dream or message being one of clutter and disorganization. It also represents someone or something that needs to be recognized as important which is of a personal nature. I think of personalization, feeling special and important but it also reveals that the person wants recognition for it too.

If a phone is old and in disarray in any form, I would interpret this as neglect whether it represents it physically, emotionally, spiritually or mentally. The tone of the call should reveal which form of neglect it is.

If a phone is sleek, new and fully charged, I would see it as the person being completely ready to take on anything, and that they take care of themselves and are healthy.

As always, with every dream, it's important to write down what you dream so that you train your subconscious to pay closer attention to these important details.

Other dream interpretation articles I've written about on Factoidz which can be accessed through my profile are:

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Drowning in Dreams: Meanings and Interpretations

Drowning in your dreams can represent many things that the subconscious is trying to relay to the dreamer. Listed below are common interpretations to what it means to dream of drowning from discovering underlying emotions of fear, being overwhelmed, trapped or the need to express one's self more clearly. Discover new and simple ways to understand what your dreams of drowning are trying to tell you.

Drowning in your dreams can represent many things that the subconscious is trying to relay to the dreamer. Listed below are common interpretations to what it means to dream of drowning.

In the Ocean

Drowning in the ocean is a common theme but there are variations to it that can reveal a lot to the dreamer about his or her daily life.

To drown while swimming out into the ocean can represent that the person usually has a good grasp on their emotions, and swims along with the ebb and flow of life. However, once out the ocean, if the dreamer tires and goes under, where he is no longer able to stay above water, this is an indication that outer influences have just become too burdensome and the person is emotionally succumbing to the pressures and stresses. The buoyancy and balance has become off center and it means it's time to lighten the load in order to float the surface again. So, if this is a relationship that has gone awry, or a job that has become too stressful, it's time to rethink the situation and let go of what's pulling him down.

If the dreamer drowns in the ocean by suddenly being swept under a wave or tide they cannot fight against, this would indicate that the dreamer has been hit by a sudden situation in life that is difficult to process or emotionally handle. If the wave throws the dreamer into the rocks or runs them aground, this can represent deliberate intent from others to "bash" him with hurtful words or actions and they are left in an emotional undertow by it. In this situation, the dreamer is either receiving a warning to what's coming, or, he may have just experienced this in his life and it's his subconscious way of processing what has happened.

If the dreamer dreams he or she is left behind either by a sinking vessel or by someone else and ends up drowning, this can be an indication that the dreamer has a root fear of being abandoned and suffers loss or grief from it. In this case, it's healthy for the dreamer to express his concerns to those he is in fear of being abandoned by, or feels abandoned by, so that it can be resolved by receiving clarity and truthful intention. If this is a general fear that the dreamer has had for a long period of time, it can be helpful for the dreamer to experience a regression either through meditation or hypnotherapy so that he can learn of and remember the impacting experience he went through that caused that. Experiencing divorce, death or sudden loss at a young age can create the subconscious manifestation of this fear that outwardly blankets most relationships in which the dreamer continually feels at risk of abandonment and loss. This can result in clingy behavior, jealousy or feeling the need to hang on extra tight to others so that they are not left alone or abandoned.  

Ocean Waves / Pixabay

In a Pool

To drown while in a pool is a very different scenario than mentioned above. A pool is manmade. It is not a natural body of water. It is artificially kept blue, clear and clean within a constructed foundation that has been intentionally manufactured.  So the question for the dreamer, is, what in his life has become manufactured that looks great on the outside, has all the working parts, but is not a natural representation? This could be a career, a spouse, a lifestyle etc.

To dream of drowning in a pool while alone can indicate that the life the person has built for themselves is no longer sustainable. It is time to downsize and liquidate what no longer serves his or her happiness. This is something the dreamer must choose for themselves, and take responsibility for. Change is a good thing and when one thing dies, another is born.

To dream of drowning in a pool while there are many other people present, this can also mean the same thing as above, but in this scenario, the dreamer may be going through this in a public way. Other people are seeing this and watching what is happening. Now whether or not they are trying to assist the person or just let them drown can be very telling as well.  This will indicate whether or not other people are willing to come to the persons rescue. If there are other people present and they too are drowning in the pool, this can represent a group situation such as a whole family or a company, or even a community that is in a particular situation that needs to be changed. Water of course represents emotion so there is an emotional sadness or loss with this type of dream. However, with all loss, as in all deaths, birth and renewal are just as much a part of the experience.

In a Natural Disaster or Storm

Many people dream of drowning in a flood, tsunami or storm in which water rises fast and they become swept up or under the force of the rushing water or waves.

In this type of dream, we are going to touch on a couple of things; one being precognition and memories from past life experiences. Some people who have actually drowned in past lives will experience it in the dream state as a way for the subconscious to bring it to the surface so that it can be healed and resolved. Unresolved fears and traumas stay with us until we are able to heal them and move forward. So, the dream state is one way in which these experiences try to surface.

In another form, these dreams can be precognitive and the dreamer may be tapping in to a global impact such as a natural disaster that claims the lives of others or affects people in the world in a large way.

In the case where either of these scenarios is not the root cause to the dream, it can traditionally mean how we handle an emotional impact that is a natural part of life and it can be a heads up that something emotionally impacting is about to hit by surprise. This can be a financial loss, emotional loss or even death of a loved one. This can also represent to the dreamer how he is moving through an emotional impact that he has gone through recently, especially if he has not been able to properly cope with life's stresses.

Being that it is a natural disaster or storm of nature, this reminds the dreamer that many things that are difficult emotionally are a natural part of life and how we handle the situation is up to us. Proper coping skills and stress management skills are vital to healing from grief and loss.


As with all dream interpretations, outer lying circumstances can give us many clues to the intricacies and details surrounding the root message. For example, if the person who drowns in the dream is heavily intoxicated, it can represent that they have been in denial or using unhealthy methods to cope with emotional stresses and loss. Or let's say a person is driving a bus or car and it veers off the road, plunging into a lake or river, and the dreamer drowns, this can be a warning to slow down in life, and that they are taking too big of risks that can compromise their health or well being.  Another example would be being trapped or having one's hands tied and movement is compromised which causes the dreamer to not be able to fight for his breath or life. This can indicate that outer influences have forced the dreamer into circumstances that has made him feel victimized or at risk of failure, even if it's failure of a relationship or being able to stay afloat financially.  This can also represent that the dreamer is feeling suffocated and unable to have the proper "breathing room" in a relationship or other position that is having a negative impact on him.

This is just a reminder to the dreamer to take charge and take hold of his present situation and alter the circumstances so that he no longer has to feel victimized or suffocated by things that appear outside of his control.

So there are many circumstances that can change the nature of the message and help us further understand what it means.

As with all dreams, they are messages and the further we are able to interpret and understand our dreams, the better we are able to understand the ebb and flow of life which can give us great tools for healing, growth, and forgiveness.

Drowning in Your Dreams Conclusion

As you can see, there are several types of drowning dreams and each dream can have a different meaning, depending on each person’s circumstances. Dreams can tell us all a lot about our daily life fears and concerns. Learning how to interpret dreams can help us understand our deeper fears and possibly learn to handle our problems.  

Ex-Girlfriend, Ex-Boyfriend in Dreams- Meanings and Interpretations

Dreams with an Ex-Girlfriend or Ex-Boyfriend can represent many things from them thinking of the dreamer, or needing to reconcile and find closure. Discover the many common interpretations.

Breakups can linger with us, even for years and there usually is a period of time in which we have residual emotional release dreams about it that can help us transition through the pain or confusion. For this article, the dreams I'd like to focus on are the ones in which an ex has appeared in dream unannounced or by surprise when in waking life, resolution for the most part has already been made. So, listed below are some condensed interpretations in what it means to dream of an ex-girlfriend or ex-boyfriend.

They're Thinking of You

Many people reach the conclusion of a break up differently and it is common for one partner to experience a longer time of healing and closure than the other. Assuming it is the dreamer who has reached conclusion earlier, it would take them by surprise to experience a dream of their ex but it isn't necessarily for no reason.

Just experiencing the ex's presence can pose the question of "why". Simply, the ex is still seeking an answer of some kind and the dreamer is picking up on it subconsciously. They are in search of closure although depending on the nature of the dream, it can also represent the ex's desire to reconnect and reconcile.

Overly Hostile

In a dream in which we experience backlash or hostility from our ex, it can represent that they are still angry and are working through lingering emotions that are being projected on to the dreamer. In this situation, through simple prayer or meditation, the dreamer can also project an energy of release and ask that the ex find clarity and release from the emotional turbulence so that it can be released.

If the dreamer is being pursued by an angry or aggressive ex, it can also represent the need for the ex to confront whatever emotional imprints they still have from the break up. If the ex in real life were especially an angry or volatile person, this can denote a desire of revenge from the ex. So dreamer beware.

If the dreamer finds they are the ones who are overly hostile in a dream with their ex, it can represent emotional energies that were not fully dealt with at the time of the break up and it alerts the dreamer to confront their own experience of feeling victimized or betrayed so that they can receive healing and release.

Passionate or Sexual

To engage in sexual or passionate activities in a dream with an ex, especially if the dreamer is currently content can represent a couple things. One, the subconscious self is reflecting on the chemistry they have previously experienced with their ex that was pleasurable which doesn't necessarily mean anything except that it is a sexual release dream. However, with a dream in which there is not only passion, but intense emotion, it can also represent a subconscious desire to reconnect to their ex even though they have moved on.

A dream like this can indicate a heads up that the dreamer could possibly experience an opportunity to reconcile or reconnect with the ex under positive circumstances that could lead to reconnecting sexually.

Depending on what kept the relationship together in the first place, this can be an indication that the relationship had chemistry, but potentially lacked intimacy in other areas. Sex was a strong point of the relationship.

If the passion is expressed on both sides in the dream and it has a strong vivid context to it, it could actually represent both people reflecting on this at the same time in their own private lives.

Eye Contact

In a dream in which an ex appears but from afar, and is not making eye contact, this signals to the dreamer that the other person has moved on and they are no longer visible in an emotional or psychological way for the ex. How the ex behaves can be a strong message on where they currently stand in their life on the perspective of the relationship.

In a dream in which the dreamer and ex are face to face but the ex still doesn't make eye contact, this would indicate that the ex still won't face the situation as it is. Denial is strongly present. In a situation in which they look down more than look away, it shows they are looking down on the situation or relationship as it was. How they view it is negative. However, if they look up above the dreamer more than away, and still don't make eye contact, this can represent the ex seeking counsel or advice through prayer and still looking for a way to see what's right before their eyes. In a dream where the ex looks away side to side and rests their eyes on someone else, especially of the opposite sex, this can simply show the dreamer that their ex has their eye on someone else. Now, if this dream under this situation takes place during a time in which they were still together, it can indicate that the ex already had their eye on someone else and it's a way for that to be made visible.

If there is direct eye contact without speaking, then the ex is ready to see or face things as they are.

In Distress

At times, a dream will come in which an ex is in trouble and is crying out for help. Depending on the circumstances, it may actually be true in the present moment. Considering there used to be a strong connection and tie to that person, it wouldn't be unheard of to still be connected enough to pick up on the distress signal of an ex if they are in current need of help.

if the dreamer is the one in distress in the dream and the ex is there to witness it, the same can be said from the previous paragraph, and can be interpreted in reverse.

Small Details

With a dream such as this, it's important to pay attention to the small little details surrounding the bigger picture because often, they will be random things that will happen in our waking life as a way to mark a time period or location and by doing so, those little things validate the stronger message. It can also represent that both the dreamer and ex are on the same wavelength in their life and are able to feel each other still.

Everything means something; all things sensory such as colors, sounds, temperatures, and even times of season that bring the dreamer to pay attention to whether or not it is a precognitive message or takes place in the present or past.

As always, write everything down and pay attention to the surroundings. Are there other people? Where does it take place? Is there something else you need to see or be made aware of?

In Life and Death

If the dreamer dreams of an ex who has passed away, this can be a very special reunion in which the ex has returned in a dream to reconnect and let the dreamer know that he or she is okay. The more emotional or distressing the dream is, the more likely it is an emotional release dream. However, the more positive and visual the dream is, the more likely it is to be an actual visit from the other side.

Other dream interpretation articles I've written about on which can be accessed through my profile are:

Which Color Personality Are You: Red, Blue, Green or Yellow?

Most companies use the four color personality test to determine how best to address each personality with the goal of creating a harmonious and productive environment. It is useful for an individual to be able to understand each color personality as well to better equipped in adapting to each personality type

No, I'm not asking about your favorite color. After you a reach a certain age, you probably start to realize that not all of us were created equal. We each have our own nuances and personalities which sometimes make it easier for us to get along with some and have a difficult time with others. Some personalities clash and some get along with perfect ease. Most companies use a color personality test in order to better understand these personality differences and how to make it work for everyone.

Understanding the different personalities is important not just for big companies but for us as individuals as this will make it easier for us to learn how to better deal with colleagues and clients. You might say this could even be useful in understanding your partner when it comes to personal relationships. Understanding gives you a better perspective of a person and how best to react when faced with a stressful situation.

Experts have determined that there are four basic personality types. The four basic colors are, yellow, red, blue and green, and it doesn't have anything to do with a person's favorite color. As an individual, learning our color personality is also important. First, because it helps us to better understand ourselves and why we react to certain situations a certain way. Second, when we understand who we are, it allows us to open ourselves to at least try to understand others as well.

Want to learn what type of personality you have? You may take this simple color personality test. Once you have finished the test you may go back to check out what your color personality means by checking out the rest of this article. If you find that 2 or more colors returned the same result, that is perfectly normal as no one person is just one color. All of us have some bits of each color personality, although some colors may be more predominant than the rest.


The yellow personality is generally regarded as the sunniest personality. Often you will find them the life of the party. They are most of the time the loudest and most vocal of the four types of color personality. Some would regard them as the happy-go-lucky type who seems unable to take anything seriously. The yellow personality treats life as if it's one big, continuous party. If faced with a stressful situation, the yellow person would seek out friends and drink it out. Most yellow personalities fear rejection most.

More interesting facts about the yellow personality include they can be very loyal and great team players, and are personable and friendly. They can be family oriented and animal lovers, plus environmentally conscious and love the outdoors. Yellow personalities do not like conflict and are more adept at being the peace maker. A yellow personality is creative, expressive, intuitive, and makes great volunteers. They dislike phony people.  

Yellow Personality Tendencies

  • Optimism
  • Enthusiasm
  • Makes good impressions
  • Verbally articulate
  • Likes to help others
  • Creates entertaining climate

Yellow Personality Ideal situation

  • Friendly warm environment
  • Freedom from control
  • Public recognition of ability
  • Opportunity to talk
  • Positive reinforcement
  • Enthusiastic response to ideas

Yellow Personality Weaknesses

  • Following through
  • Overestimating results
  • Misjudging capabilities
  • Talks too much
  • Acts impulsively
  • Jumps to conclusions
  • Over commits
  • Acts first, thinks second

Yellow Personality Needs others to provide

  • Follow through on details
  • Focus on tasks
  • Logical approach

Yellow Personality Personal growth area

  • Time awareness
  • Objectivity in decision making


The red personality is generally considered the "dominating personality". These are the types of person who demands that things be done their way and right now. They sometimes have low tolerance for undisciplined and devil-may-care attitude which oftentimes put them at odds with the yellow personality. If faced with a stressful situation the red personality would generally seek out strenuous activities like running or boxing to vent out his or her frustrations. Most reds fear failure.

More interesting fact about the red personality includes their desire to win, competitive, and a confident personality. Even though the red personality is competitive, they can also be insecure which gives a need for approval from others and drives their need to win. They can be selfish, and not a good team player, because they would rather be in the spotlight which makes them sometimes selfish.

 Red personality Tendencies

  • Getting immediate results
  • Making quick decisions
  • Persistence
  • Solving problems
  • Taking charge
  • Looking self reliant
  • Accepting challenges

Red Personality Ideal situation

  • New varied activities
  • Opportunity to really get things done
  • Continual challenges, multi-tasker
  • Difficult assignments
  • Freedom to act from their instinct
  • Control over the situations
  • Direct answers from others, no innuendoes

Red Personality Weaknesses

  • Insensitivity towards others
  • Impatient
  • Overlook risks
  • Inflexibility, demanding of others
  • Talks too much
  • Inattentive to details at times
  • Resenting of restrictions

Red Personality Needs others to provide

  • Attention to routine tasks
  • Caution
  • Focus on details and facts

Red Personality Personal growth area

  • Greater patience
  • Sensitivity to others' needs
  • Flexibility


The green personality is generally referred to as the calm personality. They don't easily get frazzled and are the epitome of calmness even in most stressful situations. To them also falls the role of mediator when faced with sticky situations. When stressed, the green's approach is to sleep it off. The green personality tries his/her best to maintain harmony in all types of situation. Because of the green's inability to say no, people oftentimes take advantage of them.

The green personality also has the following traits. They are known to be very calculating and logical in their thinking which also means they do not make snap decisions and think everything through because of their love of analyzing every question and every situation. They are more scientific in their thinking, preferring facts over intuition of faith based answers. This can make the green personality rather skeptical of people and those with ulterior motives. They need a precise plan to follow, and they are not spontaneous, and do not like surprises. They can also be perfectionist and sometimes end up being emotionally detached.

Green Personality Tendencies

  • Supportive
  • Agreeable
  • Loyal
  • Self control
  • Consistent
  • Good listener
  • Opportunity to develop personal relationships

Green Personality Ideal situation

  • Sincere appreciation by others
  • Minimal conflict between people
  • Security
  • Acknowledgement of work by others
  • Limited territory
  • Traditional procedures
  • Opportunity to develop personal relationships

Green Personality Weaknesses

  • Resist change
  • Trouble making deadlines
  • Overly lenient with people
  • Procrastinates
  • Indecisive
  • Holds grudges
  • Overly possessive
  • Lacks initiative

Green Personality Needs others to provide

  • Push to try new challenges
  • Help in solving difficult problems
  • Initiative and accepting change

Green Personality Personal growth area

  • Facing confrontation and dealing with it
  • Moving at a faster pace and initiating


The blue personality type is seen as the perfectionists. They are the ones who would generally examine the smallest details of every situation and fret about each one of them. The blue personality oftentimes appears unemotional and doesn't want to be touched. The greatest fear of a blue person is to be criticized.

Interestingly, other studies show that the blue personalities can be aloof, forgetful and fun loving. They live for the moment and are the exact opposite of the green personality.

Blue PersonalityTendencies

  • Orderliness
  • Conscientious
  • Disciplined
  • Precise
  • Thorough
  • Diplomatic with people
  • Analytical

Blue Personality Ideal situation

  • Being able to concentrate on detail
  • Opportunities to critique
  • Stable surroundings and procedures
  • Exact job description, expectations
  • Opportunities for "careful" planning
  • Sufficient time to do things right
  • Opportunities for reassurance from authority

Blue Personality Weaknesses

  • Indecisive (looking at all data)
  • Get bogged down in details
  • Rigid on the how-to's
  • Avoids controversy
  • Low self esteem
  • Hesitant to try new things
  • Sensitive to criticism
  • Can be pessimistic

Blue Personality Needs others to provide

  • Quick decision making
  • Optimism
  • Help in persuading others

Blue Personality Personal growth area

  • Be more open with their feelings
  • Be more optimistic

Color Personality Conclusion

This is not an exact science and many people can be different than what their color personality describes. Though some people are really described well with their color personalities, other people do not resemble their color personalities. Check out the following sources for more information, because this type of personality test can be very interesting. If you find you are someone that identifies with a certain color, these tests can be very helpful.


Dreams About Lions or Tigers Meaning

Dreaming about lions and tigers can be interpreted in several ways, depending on what you personally associate with them, and universal symbolism.

Sometimes you may have dreams which you suspect have a hidden message. Dreams about lions or tigers can be particularly perplexing if you don't understand what they mean. Your subconscious could be attempting to tell you something that's trapped in the deep recesses of your mind.

According to the psychoanalyst Freud, things which are painful for us to access consciously can become trapped in our unconscious life. A follower of Freud's, Jung, believed that thoughts from our subconscious, and the collective unconscious, can rise into our dreams, and that these dreams can be interpreted if we examine dream imagery and symbols.